Environmental Risk Assessment of Human Medicinal Products

 For many years, drugs and their metabolites have been subject to unrestricted emissions to the environment. Complex mixtures enter the environment via a number of pathways, such as sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents and the land application of sewage sludge. The detection of an increasing number of human medicines at low concentrations in surface waters, coupled with their usual characteristic persistence in the environment, has led to a demand for a better understanding of the fate and potential long term effects of these materials.